We often forget how vulnerable the World Wide Web leaves us. If walls of code prevent us from entering each other’s systems and networks, there are those who can easily pick their way past them or disable essential digital platforms. We are reminded of this by the doings of Anonymous, which carried out a series of attacks, including the website run by Computer Emergency Response Team India (CERT-In), which is the government agency in charge of cyber-security. Even more serious, are cyber-attacks (arguably cyber warfare) carried out by other states, using digital weapons such as Stuxnet, the digital worm. More proximate and personal are perhaps the phishing attacks, which are on the rise.
It is therefore a great risk we run if we leave air-traffic control, defense resources or databases containing several citizens’ personal data vulnerable. It follows that efforts towards better cyber-security are needed. The cyber-security policy is meant to address this need, and to help manage threats to individuals, businesses and government agencies. However the manner in which the government handles cyber-security must be examined carefully, both to see whether it will be effective and to ensure that it does not have too many negative spillovers.
It is important to bear in mind that the National Cyber-Security Policy is merely a statement of intention in broad terms. Much of real impact will be ascertainable only after the language to be used in the law is available. The scope of the policy remains ambiguous so far, leading to much speculation about the different ways in which it might be intrusive.
One Size Fits All?
The policy covers very different kinds of entities: government agencies, private companies or businesses, non-governmental entities and individual users. These entities may need to be handled differently depending on their nature. Therefore while direct state action may be most appropriate to secure government agencies’ networks, it may be less appropriate in the context of purely private business. For example, securing police records would involve the government directly purchasing or developing sufficiently secure technology. However, different private businesses and non-governmental entities may be left to manage their own security: depending on the size of each entity, each may be differently placed to acquire sophisticated security systems. A good policy would encourage innovation by those with the capacity to do this, while ensuring that others have access to reasonably sound technology, and that they use it. Grey-areas might emerge in contexts where a private party is manages critical infrastructure.
It will also be important to distinguish between smaller and larger organisations whilst creating obligations. Unless this distinction is made at the implementation stage, start-up businesses and civil society organisations may find requirements such as earmarking a budget for cyber security implementation or appointing a Chief Information Security Officer onerous. Additionally, the policy will need to translate into a regulatory solution that provides under-resourced entities with ready solutions to enable them to make their information systems secure, while encouraging larger entities with greater purchasing power to invest in procuring the best possible solutions.
Race to the Top
Security on the Internet works only if it stays one step ahead the people trying to break in. An effective cyber-security policy must keep up with the rapid evolution of technology, and must never become obsolete. The standard-setting and review bodies will therefore need to be very nimble.
The policy contemplates working with industry and supporting academic research and development to achieve this. However the actual manner in which resources are distributed and progress is monitored may make the crucial difference between a waste of public funds and acquisition of capacity to achieve a reasonable degree of cyber security.
Additionally the flow of public funds under this policy, particularly to purchase technology, should be examined very carefully to see whether it is justified. For example, if the government chooses to fund (even by way of subsidy) a private company’s cyber-security research and development rather than an equivalent public university’s, this decision should be scrutinized to see whether it was necessary. Similarly, if extensive public funds are spent training young people as a capacity-building exercise, we should watch to see how many of these people stay in India and how many leave such that other countries end up benefiting from the Indian government’s investment in them.
Investigation of Security Threats
Although much of the policy focuses on defensive measures that can be taken against security breaches, this policy is intended not only to cover investigation subsequent to an attack but also to pinpoint ‘potential cyber threats’ so that proactive action may be taken. A ‘Cyber Crisis Management Plan’ is also contemplated, to handle incidents that impact ‘critical national processes or endanger public safety and security of the nation’.
This portion of the policy will need to be watched closely to ensure that the language used is very narrow and allows absolutely no scope for misinterpretation or misuse that would affect citizens’ rights in any manner. This caution will be necessary both in view of the manner in which restraints on freedom of speech permitted in the interests of public safety have been flagrantly abused, and because of the kind of paternalistic state intrusion that might be conceived to give effect to this.
Additionally, since the policy also mentions information sharing with internal and international security, defence, law enforcement and other such agencies, it will also be important to find out the exact nature of information to be shared.
Many of the details of this policy will only become clear as the terms governing its various parts emerge. It is to be hoped that the parts of it requiring internal direct action to ensure the government agencies’ information networks are secure are already well underway.
It is also to be hoped that the government chooses to take implementation of privacy rights at least as seriously as cyber-security. If some parts of cyber security involve ensuring that user data is protected, the decision about what data needs protection will be important to this exercise.